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11th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacology and Ethnopharmacology, will be organized around the theme “Navigating the Future of Ethnomedicine”
Ethnopharmacology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Ethnopharmacology 2018
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Pharmacology is the branch of science worried with the investigation of medication action, where a medication can be extensively characterized as any man-made, characteristic, or endogenous (from inside body) atom which applies a biochemical and additionally physiological impact on the cell, tissue, organ, or living being (some of the time the word pharmacon is utilized as a term to envelop these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). All the more particularly, it is the investigation of the associations that happen between a living life form and chemicals that influence typical or anomalous biochemical capacity. In the event that substances have therapeutic properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
Ethnopharmacology is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine practiced by various ethnic groups, and especially by indigenous peoples. The word ethnomedicine is sometimes used as a synonym for traditional medicine. Ethnomedical research is interdisciplinary; in its study of traditional medicines, it applies the methods of ethnobotany and medical anthropology. Often, the medicine traditions it studies are preserved only by oral tradition.
Scientific ethnomedical studies constitute either anthropological research or drug discovery research. Anthropological studies examine the cultural perception and context of a traditional medicine. The purpose of drug discovery research is to identify and develop a marketable pharmaceutical product.
Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants is the field of drug discovery from plants and offers stimulating, thoughtful, and critical information that should contribute in some way to the scientific progress of ethnopharmacology and to the discovery of drugs.
It emphasizes the fundamental importance of the precise observation of the use of each medicinal plant, combined with pharmacological experiments and its botanical classification, and provides the base for a new theory of ethnopharmacology.
Ethnopharmacology has already played important role in the development of conventional medicine and is likely to play more significant role in the years to come. A team work amongst ethnobotanists, ethnopharmacologists, physicians and phytochemists is essential for the fruitful outcome on medicinal plants research. While the ethnopharmacologists have a greater role to play in the rationalization of combination of activities, the phytochemist's role will slightly shift towards standardization of botanicals.
The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and in the recent years there has been an increasing awareness about the importance of medicinal plants. Drugs from the plants are easily available, less expensive, safe, and efficient and rarely have side effects. The plants which have been selected for medicinal use over thousands of years constitute the most obvious choice of examining the current search for therapeutically effective new drugs such as anticancer drugs antimicrobial drugs anti hepatotoxic compounds.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain variety of drugs. About 80% of individuals from developed countries use traditional medicines, which has compounds derived from medicinal plants. However, such plants should be investigated to better understand their properties, safety, and efficiency. Medicinal plants contain some organic compounds which provide definite physiological action on the human body and these bioactive substances include tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids. These compounds are synthesized by primary or rather secondary metabolism of living organisms. Secondary metabolites are chemically and taxonomically extremely diverse compounds with obscure function. They are widely used in the human therapy, veterinary, agriculture, scientific research and countless other areas.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines or crude drugs produced from natural sources such as plants, microbes, and animals. It includes analysis of their biological, chemical, biochemical, and physical properties. The renaissance of herbal medicine in this country creates a demand for studies in the field of Pharmacognosy. From a practical perspective this includes:
- quality control (identity, purity, consistency)
- efficacy (therapeutic indications, clinical studies, pharmacological investigations)
- safety (adverse reactions, drug interactions, contraindications, precautions)
Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Herbalism has a long tradition of use outside conventional medicine. It is becoming more mainstream as improvements in analysis and quality control, along with advances in clinical research, show the value of herbal medicine in treating and preventing disease.
Holistic medicine is a system of health care which fosters a cooperative relationship among all those involved, leading towards optimal attainment of the physical, mental emotional, social and spiritual aspects of health. It emphasizes the need to look at the whole person, including analysis of physical, nutritional, environmental, emotional, social, spiritual and lifestyle values. It encompasses all stated modalities of diagnosis and treatment including drugs and surgery if no safe alternative exists. Holistic medicine focuses on education and responsibility for personal efforts to achieve balance and well-being.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. TCM practitioners use herbal medicines and various mind and body practices, such as acupuncture and tai chi, to treat or prevent health problems. In the United States, people use TCM primarily as a complementary health approach.
TCM encompasses many different practices, including acupuncture, moxibustion (burning an herb above the skin to apply heat to acupuncture points), Chinese herbal medicine, tui na (Chinese therapeutic massage), dietary therapy, and tai chi and qi gong (practices that combine specific movements or postures, coordinated breathing, and mental focus)
Traditional Korean medicine refers to the traditional medicine practices that developed in Korea. Traditional Korean medicine, which has been in existence since antiquity, is based on Eastern philosophy and was developed through medical exchanges between countries that use Chinese characters, such as China and Japan. In traditional Korean medicine, the human body is viewed as a miniature universe. The principles, treatment methods and medication for the physiology and pathology of the body are explained by the yin-yang and five elements theory, which is based on the concept of yin and yang as the operating principle of the universe. Therefore, illnesses are not treated and cured locally; rather, they are regarded as the result of an abnormality or change to the entire body and are, therefore, treated holistically.
Kampo (or Kanpo) is a traditional Japanese therapeutic system, the bulk of which is derived from the classical Chinese medicine that came to Japan in the 5th and 6th centuries. Over the years, the Japanese have created unique diagnosis methods, herbal formulas, and therapeutic approaches. Kampo includes most of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modalities including acupuncture, moxibustion (heat therapy), Anma (or Tuina, an ancient massage technique and the basis of Shiatsu therapy), diet, and herbal medicine
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body. It is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, and acupuncture is a pseudoscience. There are a diverse range of acupuncture theories based on different philosophies, and techniques vary depending on the country. The method used in TCM is likely the most widespread in the US. It is most often used for pain relief, though it is also used for a wide range of other conditions. Acupuncture is generally used only in combination with other forms of treatment.
Moxibustion is a form of heat therapy in which dried plant materials called "moxa" are burned on or very near the surface of the skin. The intention is to warm and invigorate the flow of Qi in the body and dispel certain pathogenic influences. Moxa is usually made from the dried leafy material of Chinese mugwort (Artemesia argyi or A.vlugaris), but it can be made of other substances as well.
Moxibustion is used for: Pain due to injury or arthritis, especially in "cold" patterns where the pain naturally feels better with the application of heat, Digestive problems and irregular elimination, Gynecological and obstetrical conditions, including breech presentation in late term pregnancy and Protection against cold and flu strains.